About the Project
The research design of SHARP's initial phase (2007-2010) included architectural
mapping and documentation, surface survey at the site and in the surrounding region,
artifact analysis, geomorphological studies, and anthropological research. These studies
aimed to provide detailed documentation of the surface remains at Kalamianos, and to
contextualize the settlement within its region and the greater Mycenaean world. The
initial phase of research comprised a range of environmental and surface studies that
stand on their own as well as provide a rich context for eventual subsurface investigation.
- How have local and regional tectonics, as well as sea level change, altered the configuration of
the coastline over time, and how can we work back to the Bronze Age coastline?
- How does the regional geological structure control hydrology, and how did the Mycenaeans
ensure a water supply in this semi-arid region?
- Given today's rough, karstic surface at Kalamianos, can geomorphological studies estimate the loss of
soil and come to a better understanding of the Bronze Age living surface?
- What can we recover about the construction methods, building forms, site planning and layout,
function, patterns of movement, and so forth from the architectural remains at Kalamianos and Stiri?
- Can we confirm that Kalamianos functioned as a harbor town in the Mycenaean period?
- Can we verify a Late Bronze Age date for many of the terrace walls at Kalamianos, Stiri, and other areas within
the region, and what can we learn from them about agro-pastoral exploitation?
- How was the hinterland, including sites like Stiri and the "Saddle Site," integrated with the
harbor site and the wider maritime and terrestrial worlds beyond?
- What is the settlement history of the region, and does this history reflect oscillating patterns of
inward and outward orientation? How do the artifacts and features illuminate these questions?
- What is the history of Kalamianos within the Saronic small world orbiting around Kolonna
from the later third millennium through the early Mycenaean period?
- Was Kalamianos a contested periphery between Mycenae and Kolonna in Late Helladic II-III?
- What role did Kalamianos play in Mycenaean maritime trade and connectivity in the 13th century B.C.?
- How was Kalamianos connected to overland routes to the Corinthia and Argolid, including Mycenae?
- Can oral histories and archival records of life in recent times shed light on the Mycenaean period?
From 2007 to 2009 our fieldwork priorities included the following:
- To undertake a systematic study of the architecture at Korphos-Kalamianos, including a thorough
inventory of the architectural remains and an accurate plan of their location; detailed documentation
of the architecture through written descriptions, drawings, and photographs; and precise architectural
survey of selected buildings and complexes using Differential GPS and Electronic Total Station equipment,
and in some cases stone-by-stone plan drawings of well-preserved buildings.
- To conduct systematic archaeological surface survey on the Kalamianos site and in the region around
it in order to detect spatial patterns in Late Bronze Age activity, document architectural and other
features, and collect small samples of artifacts for chronological and comparative purposes.
- To design and implement a laboratory component to properly document, conserve,
store, and study artifact collections.
- To carry out geological and geomorphological study to characterize the geological and
hydrological resources available in the Korphos area, and to address questions of long-term
geomorphology, such as movement and loss of soil and sediment at Kalamianos.
- To initiate underwater exploration in the form of geophysical prospection and exploratory
dives, in order to reconstruct the configuration of the Bronze Age harbor basin(s), to
estimate the extent of the submerged area of the Kalamianos Mycenaean site, and to collect
other information on the tectonic history of the harbor basin and its cultural exploitation
- To create a new series of aerial photographs, shot from balloon and kite, to document the
Kalamianos site and other locations, once cleared of vegetation concealing buildings and other features.
- To interview local inhabitants about the conditions of the village in the years before
World War II, with a specific interest in fishing, sea travel, relations with other
settlements on Saronic coasts and islands, overland travel and relations with inland
communities, and other topics that might help to illuminate the way that Mycenaeans engaged
with land and sea from Kalamianos.
- To engage with the local community through outreach programs and participation in the life of the village,
as well as longer-term planning coordinated with Demos and Ephoreia officials.
In 2010 and 2011 we conducted study seasons with these main objectives:
- Study of the finds collected in 2007-2009 from Kalamianos and the archaeological survey,
now housed in the Ohio State University apothiki at Isthmia, including drawing and photography.
- Completion, correction, and editing of all data generated in 2007-2009 (architectural, surface survey,
specialist studies) for inclusion in databases and GIS.
- Use of databases and GIS to begin analytical studies.
- Web site development, including design and content development.
- Planning for publication of the final report, in monograph form, of SHARP's first phase.